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Table 2 Exposures, covariates and outcomes for driving studies using the SPPB, the TUG, or the RPW as a measure of physical functioning

From: Select physical performance measures and driving outcomes in older adults

Measure First author, Year Exposures, participants, and covariates assessed Outcomes measured
SPPB Davis, 2011a SPPB scores***, age***, sex***, education**, home circumstances (living alone or with others), BMI category, walking and mobility aid use**, IMD*, amenities within 5-min walking category, number of cars in household*** Driving exposure (number of car trips as a driver per week)
SPPB Gill, 2012b low SPPB score*, intermediate SPPB score, age (75-79y*, 80-84y*, ≥85*), female sex*, living with others, chronic conditions, moderate visual impairment, severe visual impairment*, weight loss*, cognitive impairment*, low physical activity*, lower-extremity weakness, gross motor coordination (8.8–10.3 s*, 10.4–12.4 s*, ≥12.5 s*), peak expiratory flow; precipitants: hospitalization* and restricted activity* Driving cessation (long-term disability in driving a car, indicated by not driving in the past 6 months)
SPPB Sims, 2007c SPPB scores**, age*, sex, race, education, rural residence, SRH*, visual acuity, MMSE scores, GDS scores, CCI scores Driving cessation
TUG Dawson, 2010d TUG, age*, sex, education, days driven per week, miles driven per week, CFT-Copy*, CFT-Recall*, Blocks*, BVRT, TMT A, TMT B, AVLT, JLO, COWA, COGSTAT**, UFOV, CS, FVA, NVA*, SFM, FR balance, Pegs* Driving ability (safety errors per drive)
TUG Emerson, 2012e TUG, age*a, male gender, education**b, miles per week***b, number of crashes in past year, number of times pulled over in past year, exposure reduction score, intentional avoidance score, GDS, FR balance, Pegs*a, NVA*a, FVA, CS*a, JLO*a, SFM, UFOV*a, Blocks, CFT-Copy, CFT-Recall, BVRT*a, AVLT-Recall, TMT A*a, TMT B*c, TMT (B-A)*c, COWA, COGSTAT**a, overall road safety errors year 1, serious road safety errors year 1*bc Driving cessation, citations, and crashes (time to driving event over a length of follow-up ranging from 3 to 8 years)
RPW Ball, 2006f RPW, age*, female sex*, history of at-fault crash involvement, history of falling*, delayed recall, tap time, MVPT**, TMT A, TMT B*, UFOV subtest 2** Driving crashes (at-fault motor vehicle collision involvement during follow-up period of between 4.18 and 5.13 years)
RPW Carr, 2011g RPW, age, male sex, African American race, driving experience in years, days driven per week, miles driven per day, ≥1 crashes in previous year, FVA, CS*, presence of any abnormal score on visual field test, cervical range of motion left, cervical range of motion right, 9-Hole Peg Test right, 9-Hole Peg Test left*, grip strength right, grip strength left, brake reaction*, Short Blessed Test**, SMT**, CDT***, TMT A***, TMT B***, eight-item informant interview to differentiate aging and dementia total***, Digit Span Forwards, Digit Span Backwards**, MVPT, UFOV* Driving ability (passing or failing the Washington University Road Test)
RPW Classen, 2013h RPW*, age, sex*, education, medication, MMSE, UFOV**, days of driving/week**, avoiding rush hour, avoiding the interstate*, avoiding rain, avoiding night driving, avoiding left turns, avoiding other Driving ability (passing or failing the on-road driving test)
RPW Edwards, 2010i RPW, age*, days driven per week, MVPT, TMT B, UFOV* Driving cessation (time to cessation in months over 10-year period)
RPW Langford, 2013j RPW*, gender*, age*, crash involvement in the last year, one leg stance (left leg), one leg stance (right leg), Ruler Drop*, Snellen visual acuity*, MMSE, Montreal cognitive assessment, MVPT*, TMT A*, TMT B*, Digit Span Forwards, Digit Span Backwards, months in reverse order*, self-rated abilities (see road signs at distance*, see road signs at distance at night*, see road lines at night*, see objects on road at night with glare or on wet roads*, quickly find street or exit in unfamiliar area and heavy traffic*, get in and out of car*), comfort in daytime driving situations (in light rain*, in heavy rain*, parking in tight spots*, in unexpected storm*, seeing street or exit signs with little warnings*, surrounded by multiple transport trucks*, tailgated by other drivers, passed by other drivers in non-passing lane, other drivers do not signal or seem distracted*) Driving exposure (low mileage drivers [<5,001 km/yr] vs. high mileage drivers [≥15,000 km/yr])
RPW Marottoli, 1994k RPW, impaired design copying*, number of blocks walked*, number of foot abnormalities*, driving frequency, housing type Driving crashes and citations (crashes, moving violations, and being stopped by police in a 1-year period)
RPW Stav, 2008l RPW***, MMSE***, UFOV***, TMT B***, Letter cancellation, Digit Span Forwards*, digit symbol substitution task, delayed recall, visual fields, acuity, MVPT spatial orientation subtask*, MVPT visual closure task, depth perception**, CS A***, CS B***, CS C***, CS D***, CS E***, Rules of the Road Test*, Road Sign Test***, right grip strength**, left grip strength*, trunk/neckrotation to left*, trunk/neck rotation to right**, Driving ability (Global Rating Score assigned based on driving performance during a road test)
RPW Woolnough, 2013m RPW, Snellen visual acuity, visual field by confrontation, TMT B, CDT, neck rotation, shoulder and elbow flexion, finger curl, ankle plantar flexion, ankle dorsiflexion, shoulder adduction and abduction, wrist flexion and extension, hand-grip strength, hip flexion and extension, ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion Driving crashes (at-fault or not-at-fault crashes in the past 2 years)
  1. SPPB short physical performance battery, IMD index of multiple deprivation, SRH self-rated health, MMSE mini-mental state examination, GDS geriatric depression scale, CCI Charlson comorbidity index, TUG timed up-and-go test,CFT-Copy complex figure test-copy, CFT-Recall complex figure test-recall, Blocks WAIS-III block design, BVRT benton visual retention test, TMT trail making test, AVLT Rey auditory verbal learning test, JLO judgment of line orientation, COWA Controlled Oral Word Association, COGSTAT composite measure of cognitive function; UFOV useful field of view, CS contrast sensitivity, FVA far visual acuity, NVA near visual acuity, SFM structure from motion, FR functional reach, Pegs grooved pegboard test, RPW rapid pace walk, MVPT motor free visual perception test, SMT snellgrove maze test, CDT clock drawing test, ADReS assessment of driving related skills
  2. aT-test and ANOVA analyses
  3. bCox proportional hazards regression reporting hazard ratios; reference values: SPPB score (high), age (70-74y), visual impairment (none or mild), gross motor coordination (≤8.7 s)
  4. cMultivariable logistic regression analysis reporting adjusted odds ratios
  5. dMultiple linear regression analysis of estimated changes in total driving safety errors for a 1-standard deviation increase in cognitive, visual, and motor predictors, controlling for age, education, and sex
  6. eCox proportional hazards regression reporting hazard ratios for a 1 standard deviation increase in visual, motor, and cognitive predictors, controlling for age, gender, education, and baseline mileage driven per week; 3 regression models for the 3 driving outcomes with significance indicated by adriving cessation bcitations ccrashes
  7. fChi-squared test analyses for association between at-fault motor vehicle collisions and demographics and selected screening tests, all covariates adjusted for annual miles driven
  8. gCorrelations of demographic, noncognitive, and selected psychometric tests with failure on the road test
  9. hLogistic regression reporting adjusted odds ratios
  10. iCox proportional hazards regression final model for time to driving cessation
  11. jBivariate comparisons between low mileage and high mileage drivers on demographics, physical/sensory performance, cognitive performance, and comfort with aspects of daytime driving
  12. kBinomial relative risk modeling adjusted for driving frequency and housing type
  13. lCorrelations of independent variables with the Global Rating Score
  14. mFisher’s exact test, Pearson’s chi-squared test, and independent samples t-test analyses comparing those who were and were not involved in a collision on ADReS sub-tests
  15. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001