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Table 1 Project Lazarus strategies and hypothesized effects

From: Associations between implementation of Project Lazarus and opioid analgesic dispensing and buprenorphine utilization in North Carolina, 2009–2014

  Strategy Examples of Key Activities Expected effect on opioid analgesic prescribing Expected effect on buprenorphine utilization
1 Community Education • Community- and school-based prevention education Decrease Increase
• Multi-media advertising campaigns
2 Diversion Control • Education on proper storage of medications No change No change
• Pill take-backs and fixed disposal sites
• Training of law enforcement in the prevention of medication diversion and the arrest of diverters
3 Support for Patients with Pain • Development of support groups and other extra-clinical services for patients Decrease Increase
• Referrals of patients to clinics
• Pain patient education on reducing risks of overdose
4 Provider Education • Continuing education on the effective management of chronic pain and appropriate opioid prescribing Greatest decrease Increase
• Effective management of patients with chronic pain
5 Hospital Emergency Department (ED) Policy • Policies to limit controlled substance dispensing in EDs Decrease No change
• Policies to require use of the PDMP in EDs
6 Addiction Treatment • Increases in availability/access to drug detoxification programs and treatment clinics No change Greatest increase
• Increases in the number of providers authorized to prescribe buprenorphine for addiction
7 Naloxone Policies • Provision of naloxone to patients and nonmedical opioid users with high overdose risk and their family members No change No change
• Education on reversing overdose before EMS arrival