Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations between Project Lazarus implementation and buprenorphine utilization, by strategy, North Carolina, 2009–2014

From: Associations between implementation of Project Lazarus and opioid analgesic dispensing and buprenorphine utilization in North Carolina, 2009–2014

     Univariate Modelsa Multivariable Adjusted Modelb
Strategy Implementation Level County-months Monthly Bup. Patients IRR 95% CI CLR IRR 95% CI CLR
Diversion Control None 4971 266,389 1 (ref.)    1 (ref.)   
Any 2229 323,576 1.82 1.71, 1.93 1.128 1.00 0.93, 1.08 1.165
Naloxone Policies None 6216 443,181 1 (ref.)    1 (ref.)   
Any 984 146,784 1.67 1.57, 1.78 1.133 1.02 0.96, 1.08 1.122
Community Education None 5969 379,482 1 (ref.)    1 (ref.)   
Any 1231 210,483 1.68 1.59, 1.78 1.117 0.98 0.91, 1.05 1.164
Provider Education None 4962 303,822 1 (ref.)    1 (ref.)   
Any 2238 286,143 1.77 1.68, 1.87 1.117 1.00 0.93, 1.07 1.148
Support for Patients with Pain None 6684 454,973 1 (ref.)    1 (ref.)   
Any 516 134,992 1.54 1.45, 1.64 1.131 0.93 0.85, 1.02 1.200
Hospital ED Policy None 5485 360,241 1 (ref.)    1 (ref.)   
Any 1715 229,724 1.68 1.57, 1.80 1.146 0.98 0.92, 1.04 1.134
Addiction Treatment (Policy Only) None 6549 512,646 1 (ref.)    1 (ref.)   
Any 651 77,319 1.62 1.51, 1.74 1.148 0.98 0.91, 1.06 1.161
  1. IRR incidence rate ratio, CI confidence interval, CLR confidence limit ratio, ED Emergency Department
  2. Results from Poisson GEE with county-month population offset
  3. aUnivariate unadjusted models for each strategy
  4. bAdjusted multivariable model adjusts for the other six strategies, county opioid analgesic prescribing rate, county health status, year and season