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Table 1 Overall incident rates of death during organized school sports in Japanese middle and high school by sport between 2005 and 2016

From: Epidemiology of sudden death in organized school sports in Japan

Sport Number of deaths Number of athletes Incident rate per 100,000 athlete-years 95%CI
Rugby 13 283,224 4.59 2.43 6.75
Judo 24 638,340 3.76 1.58 5.93
Baseball 25 4,264,644 0.59 0.38 0.79
Kendo 8 1,600,332 0.50 0.17 0.83
Soccer/ Futsal 20 4,972,080 0.40 0.26 0.55
Basketball 18 5,620,116 0.32 0.18 0.46
Badminton 6 2,975,640 0.20 0.08 0.32
Tennis 11 6,604,788 0.17 0.10 0.24
Volleyball 5 3,852,084 0.13 0.04 0.22
  1. Population data for middle school and high school student athletes were retrieved from the Nippon Junior High School Physical Culture Association and All Japan High School Athletic Federation membership data (middle school, http://njpa.sakura.ne.jp/pdf/kamei/h28kameiseito_m.pdf and http://njpa.sakura.ne.jp/pdf/kamei/h28kameiseito_f.pdf; high school, https://www.zen-koutairen.com/pdf/reg-28nen.pdf). Due to missing data in some years, data from 2016 was used as the estimate of participant numbers in all years